In October loss of a large amount of rainfall was observed that by 2,7 times exceeded average long-term data, and air temperature which was higher than norm. All this promoted a zatyazheniye of growth of plants and reduced their training.
As a result of selection work of the Mliyevsky of gardening and Institute of gardening (Mr. Kia a of sweet cherry of the forest-steppe and Polesia was replenished with new grades; Duca's Favourite, Kiyanka, Kitayevsky black, Beauty of Kiev, Early Duca (selectors C.X. Duca, A. P. Rodionov, I. M. Kovtun); Pink mliyevsky, Nectareous (selectors I. I. Ilchishin, A. M. Shevchenko and N. A. Borisyuk). Sweet cherry grades are well-known: early, Goryanka, Dagestani (Dagestan station of gardening, selector Pokrovsk A. S.);
In September average monthly air temperature was at the level of average long-term data. Distribution of an amount of precipitation this month was uneven. In the first decade of rainfall was not absolutely, but in 2 and 3 their decades more norm dropped out.
It is undesirable to have negative qualities at initial forms: low winter hardiness, low productivity, small fruits, watery pulp, low flavoring which are hardly overcome in posterity.
Here terms of carrying out all program and its separate stages, possible ways of acceleration of process and need of integration from a of various profile are defined. With broad introduction of a probably opportunity to selection process and prior to the beginning of a practical embodiment of the general plan to find more optimum providing success of the program, reducing risk will be presented. Problems of initial material and ways of a of selection ideas at this stage of creation of the program are the most important and their first of all has to rely on achievements of a as theoretical base of selection of any culture, to be followed by broad application of world experience and the general approaches to selection of plants on specific signs.
The greatest rejection among hybrid seedlings, is by the small size of fruits as the krupnoplodnost is controlled by recessive genes. Hybridization with an of the initial forms possessing the sizes and mass of fruits allowed to step on these indicators over boundaries of the international standard (weight — 8 g, diameter — 26 mm), having provided much more large-fruited grades.
Fenotipichesky variability of hybrids on flavoring advantages is caused by influence of genotypes of fatherly and maternal initial forms, and also their. The big percent with taste of fruits specifies in hybrid posterity of seedlings that this sign by prepotent genes.
As a result of long-term work another managed to allocate selectors M. T. Oratovsky, I. A. Ryabova, N. I. Turovtseva, L. I. Taranenko of N a number of perspective soryotov-donor for selection on the following signs:
Thus the greatest indicators of Construction Department among forms grades Valery Chkalov, Vinka, possess. Large-fruited. They note also coincidence of high rates Construction Department and SKS, indicating that circumstance that the posterity of these grades, in comparison with other grades, is more high-quality.
It is very important that the grades selected for a differed in a complex of positive properties (winter hardiness, drought resistance, a long of winter rest, high productivity and quality of fruits etc.), and also supplemented each other on the signs, necessary for the selector.
At intraspecific crossings of incompatible it turns out slightly. And at a it is always shown in both directions; words if the grade But does not tie fruits at an it a grade In, from this it follows that and the grade In will be sterile at pollination its pollen of a grade And.
As showed results of work of many, use as initial forms of grades from various ekologo-geographical areas most for creation of new grades of sweet cherry.
The sign of the large size of a stone dominates over | the small. Render both maternal, and fatherly initial forms on inheritance of this sign. The greatest effects of Construction Department are noted at grades Valery Chkalov and Large-fruited. Thus they coincide with effects of SKS, as causes at hybrid posterity of these grades of the largest stone.